According to provisional figures of 2011 census, India’s population is 1,21,01,93,422. That is more than the population of Russia, Canada, USA, Brazil, Australia, Argentina, Sudan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Greenland, Madagascar, Namibia and many other countries put together. During the decade the growth was 17.64%, lowest since independence.
The number 1,21,01,93,422 includes Bangladeshis, Nepalis, Tibetans and other foreigners living in India but does not include Indians living abroad.
Population in age group 0-6 came down from 163.8 million in 2001 to 158.8 million in 2011, i.e., five million less. This group has the sex ratio of 914. Female foeticide is an important reason for less girls and less population in 0-6 group.
All states, union territories and Delhi had an increase in population except Nagaland. Nagaland’s population came down from 19,90,036 to 19,80,602. This may be due to migration. Some hold 2001 figure was wrong.
Among states UP’s population at 19,95,81,477 is highest and Sikkim’s population at 6,07,688 is lowest. Among union territories Pondicherry’s population at 12,44,464 is highest and Lakshadweep’s population 64,429 is lowest.
At one time India’s decadal growth was 24.80%. It has declined over the decades. The growth rate for future decades is likely to decline and be less than 17.64% till it becomes zero. In many developed countries there is no population growth.
Migration plays in important part in population and if a state has low increase in population that does not mean low birth rate but could be migration.
People are a country’s greatest asset. With decline in Japan’s population came decline in its economy. China overtook Japan as No. 2 economy and is likely to displace USA as No. 1 economy. India’s economy is growing and it will overtake many countries. China has one child policy that is relaxed in Shanghai and Beijing and is likely to be relaxed in other parts of China. Canada is larger than China but it is not a great power because it is not very populous.
India’s population in 1951 was 36 crore. Many predicted dire consequences if India did not control its population. Time has proved those predictions wrong. India in 2011 is more prosperous than it was in 1951.